Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder that results from a lack of chemical messengers (dopamine and norepinephrine) in the frontal lobe, which facilitate the functioning of cells and communication between the ends of the brain.
Beginning in childhood, this disorder can cause high levels of hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. People with ADHD may have difficulty focusing their attention on a single task or sitting for long periods of time.
What are the main symptoms of ADHD?
There is a wide range of behaviors and symptoms associated with ADHD, including the following:
- Having trouble concentrating or concentrating on tasks.
- Forgetting to complete tasks.
- Easily distracted.
- Difficulty sitting for a period of time.
- Interrupt people while they are talking.
Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
To make ADHD easier to diagnose, scientists have divided the disorder into three categories, or types.
1- The type that is predominantly inattentive
As the name implies, people with this type of ADHD have extreme difficulty concentrating, completing tasks, and following instructions.
Experts also believe that many children with ADHD may not receive a proper diagnosis because they tend not to display obvious symptoms that indicate the presence of the disorder.
2- The type that is dominated by excessive motor activity and impulsivity
People with this type of ADHD primarily show hyperactive and impulsive behavior. This can include fidgeting, interrupting people while they are talking, and not being able to wait for their turn.
Although inattention is no less of a concern with this type of ADHD, people with ADHD are often hyperactive and impulsive and may find it difficult to focus on tasks and stay in one place.
3- The type in which excessive motor activity and impulsivity combine with lack of attention at the same time
This is the most common type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. People with this common type of ADHD show symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. These include an inability to pay attention, a tendency to be impulsive, and higher than normal levels of activity and energy.
What causes ADHD?
Despite the prevalence of ADHD, doctors and researchers still aren’t sure what causes the condition. It is thought to have neurological origins and genetics may play a role as well.
Research suggests that low dopamine is a factor in ADHD. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that helps transmit signals from one nerve to another. It plays a role in triggering emotional responses and movements.
Other research indicates a structural difference in the brain. The results indicate that people with ADHD have lower gray matter volume. Gray matter includes areas of the brain that help with:
- Decision making
- Muscle control
There is no single test that can determine whether you or your child has ADHD. A recent study highlighted the benefits of a new test to diagnose ADHD in adults, but many clinicians believe that a diagnosis of ADHD cannot be made based on a single test.
To make a diagnosis, your doctor will evaluate any symptoms you or your child have had in the past six months.
Your doctor will likely collect information from teachers or family members and may use checklists and rating scales to review your symptoms. A physical exam will also be done to check for other health problems.
If you suspect that you or your child has ADHD, talk to your doctor about getting a diagnosis.
Treatment for ADHD usually includes behavioral therapies, medications, or both.
Types of treatment include psychotherapy or talk therapy. With talk therapy, you or your child will discuss how ADHD affects your life and ways to help you manage it.
The other type of treatment is behavioral therapy. This therapy can help you or your child learn how to monitor and manage your behavior.
Medications can be helpful when you have ADHD. Medications to treat the disorder are designed to affect chemicals in the brain in a way that enables you to better control your actions.
To have a proper ADHD diagnosis and/or treatment, you should consult with a neurology specialist.
Click here to book an appointment with a Neurologist
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