Down Syndrome or medically known as Trisomy 21 is a condition where a baby is born with an extra copy of a chromosome. On average, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes.

This extra copy of chromosome 21 affects the brain development and organ functions of the baby’s body. Typically, people with Down Syndrome have mid to lower range of IQ.

Down Syndrome is quite a common condition that happens for 1 in every 320 babies in Dubai alone.

Types Of Down Syndrome

There are 3 types of Down Syndrome that are currently known:

Trisomy 21

According to research and statistics, Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down Syndrome and accounts for almost 95% of all Down Syndrome cases around the world.

Trisomy 21 happens when chromosome 21 failed to separate, resulting in another copy of the chromosome.

Translocation Down Syndrome 

Accounts for less than 4% of Down Syndrome cases around the world. Translocation Down Syndrome happens when the extra pair of chromosome 21 is present but attaches itself to another chromosome.

Mosaic Down Syndrome

This is the rarest form of Down Syndrome and accounts for 2% of all Down Syndrome cases. Mosaic Down Syndrome happens when there are three separate chromosome 21.

Down Syndrome Symptoms

Although Down Syndrome affects how the brain develops, there are also physical symptoms that are shown in people with Down Syndrome.

Here are the symptoms of people with Down Syndrome:

  • Almond-like eyes that are slanted upwards
  • flattened face (in the nose area)
  • Short neck
  • Mid to lower IQ range
  • Slowed development of speech
  • White spot on the iris
  • Poor muscles
  • Loose joints

Down Syndrome is normally diagnosed prenatally. During this period, doctors might suggest a prenatal screen test and diagnostic test. Prenatal screening tells the probability of the fetus having Down Syndrome.

Down Syndrome can also be diagnosed at birth by the symptoms that the child show.

Treatments

Unfortunately, Down Syndrome is a lifelong condition. However, there are therapies that are used to help.

Early intervention is a program dedicated to young children and families. The program includes speech therapy and physical therapy.

Physical therapies help children develop their motor skills and improve their posture. Speech therapy will help the children use language more effectively. Additionally, speech therapy may include teaching infants the ability to breastfeed which eventually helps the muscle to communicate verbally.

Aside from physical and speech therapies, there’s also occupational therapy that helps children to perform daily tasks.

Check out Okadoc blog and application to read more on health topics.